Nitric acid 55% – Nitric acid (V) in jargon, often mistakenly called an azeotrope – azeotrope is a mixture of chemical substances that remain in thermodynamic equilibrium with saturated steam, for a solution of nitric acid this concentration is 65%, however, it has been incorrectly referred to as Azeotrope.
Nitric acid has very high chemical activity, dissociates completely even under the influence of small amounts of water. Nitric acid and its compounds – especially salts – have strong oxidizing properties. It reacts very rapidly with most proteins, which is why it is widely used in the food industry as a universal washing and disinfecting agent. Unfortunately, due to strong oxidizing properties, it causes rapid corrosion of most unprotected metals, which significantly limits its use in this area.
Particularly eagerly used in dairies, breweries, juice factories and other plants where closed technological lines for pasteurization and homogenization of liquids and colloidal systems are subjected to the washing and disinfection process. The technological line is flooded with a small amount of nitric acid. The acid is forced through a closed system. It removes all product residue, leaving behind a sterile sterilized surface. Before the next technological start-up, such a disinfected line is neutralized by rinsing with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution – sodium hydroxide solution.
In addition, Nitric Acid finds application in the chemical industry as a raw material for chemical synthesis, as a raw material in the pharmaceutical industry, for the production of dyes, varnishes, plastics and nitrogen fertilizers. Its salts are used in the defense industry and pyrotechnics, due to its strong oxidizing properties.